Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) and fitness exercises in reducing urine leakage in elderly women with stress urinary incontinence (UI).
Design: Randomized, crossover, follow-up trial.
Setting: Urban community in Japan.
Participants: Seventy women aged 70 and older who reported urine leakage one or more times per month; 35 were randomly assigned to intervention and the other 35 to control.
Intervention: The intervention group attended an exercise class aimed at enhancing PFMs and fitness. Duration of the exercise was 60 minutes per session twice a week for 3 months. After 3 months of exercise, the intervention group was followed for 1 year.
Measurements: Body mass index (BMI), urine leakage, walking speed, and muscle strength were measured at baseline, after the intervention, and at follow-up.
Results: In the intervention group, maximum walking speed and adductor muscle strength increased significantly after the intervention; there were no significant changes in the control group. After 3 months of exercise, 54.5% of the intervention group and 9.4% of the control group reported being continent. Within the cured group of UI, a significantly higher proportion had decreased their BMI at 3 months (P=.03) and increased walking speed at 3 (P=.04) and 12 (P=.047) months.
Conclusion: Decrease in BMI and increase in walking speed may contribute to the treatment of UI, although the data do not support a positive correlation between strengthening of adductor muscle and improvement of UI, which needs more research.