Studies were conducted to characterize the hemolytic effects of EGPE in rabbits following oral and dermal exposure, and to evaluate the in vitro hemolytic potential of EGPE and its major metabolite using rabbit red blood cells (RBC). Gavage administration of EGPE to female New Zealand White rabbits at 100, 300, 600, or 1000 mg/kg/day for up to 10 consecutive days (one dose/day) resulted in a dose-related intravascular hemolytic anemia. The hemolytic anemia was characterized by decreased RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, hemoglobinuria, splenic congestion, renal tubule damage, and a regenerative erythroid response in the bone marrow. The hemolytic anemia was observed without alterations in RBC glutathione or methemoglobin. Phenoxyacetic acid (PAA) was identified as a major blood metabolite of EGPE. In vitro exposure of female rabbit erythrocytes indicated EGPE to be considerably more hemolytic than PAA. In a 90-day dermal study in which EGPE was applied to the skin of male and female New Zealand White rabbits 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, at doses up to 500 mg/kg/day, there was no indication of a hemolytic response. The only treatment-related effects were sporadic occurrences of slight erythema and scaling of skin at the site of test material application in high dose group male and female rabbits. However, erythema and scaling were not associated with gross or histopathologic changes and were not considered toxicologically significant.