Background: Arterial disease in women will become a major issue in the near future.
Methods: A systemic review of existing literature was retrospectively conducted to collect information on the three most common entities of vascular disease: carotid atherosclerotic, abdominal aortic aneurismal, and lower extremity arterial occlusive disease.
Results: Vascular disease is either underdiagnosed or undertreated in women. Whether regarding cerebrovascular disease, aortic aneurysmal disease, or atherosclerosis affecting the lower extremities, natural history, clinical and physiologic patterns are different in women vs men. Current biomedical devices create challenges in endovascular procedures performed in women. Furthermore, indications for treatment of vascular disease are derived from large studies where women are often underrepresented; and, thus, may not be applicable in female vascular patients.
Conclusions: Better understanding of the gender differences in vascular disease with focused randomized trials, biomedical research, and identification of gender specific medical and social risk factors will improve the clinical outcomes in female patients.