Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulates activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) expression in vivo

J Mol Neurosci. 2007;33(3):278-83. doi: 10.1007/s12031-007-9003-0. Epub 2007 Oct 2.


Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an important mediator of development during the neural tube closure period of embryogenesis and may regulate, in part, the expression of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), which is essential for neural tube closure and embryogenesis. To evaluate the impact of VIP expression in vivo on ADNP and the related protein ADNP2 the current study examined gene expression in adult wild-type (VIP +/+) and VIP null (VIP -/-) offspring of VIP deficient mothers (VIP+/-) comparing them to wild-type offspring of wild-type mothers. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using an ABI Prisma cycler revealed regionally specific reductions of ADNP mRNA in the brains of VIP null mice compared with the brains of wild-type offspring of a wild-type mother. ADNP was significantly reduced in the cortex and hypothalamus of VIP null mice, but not in the hippocampus or thalamus. ADNP2 exhibited a similar pattern but reached a statistically significant reduction only in the hypothalamus. The mRNA for ADNP and ADNP2 also tended to be reduced in the cortex and hippocampus of the wild-type littermates of the VIP null mice, indicating that the VIP genotype of the mother may have had an impact on the ADNP expression of her offspring, regardless of their own VIP genotype. These results showed that VIP regulated brain ADNP expression in a regionally specific manner and indicated that both maternal and offspring VIP genotype may influence ADNP expression in the brain.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / anatomy & histology
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Female
  • Homeodomain Proteins / genetics
  • Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism*
  • Neuroprotective Agents / metabolism*
  • Neurulation / physiology*
  • Pregnancy
  • Protein Isoforms / genetics
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism*
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / genetics
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / metabolism*


  • Adnp protein, mouse
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide