Traditional cytogenetic studies of ovarian stromal tumors are few, although trisomy 12 has been frequently documented with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In the current study, karyotypic analysis of four ovarian stromal tumors and a review of the literature suggest that numerical abnormalities of chromosomes 4 and 9 might also be important, possibly as secondary changes. To determine the frequency of 4, 9, and 12 aneuploidy in a larger group of ovarian tumors, FISH studies were performed on eight fibromas, three thecomas, one fibrothecoma, and five cellular fibromas. Trisomy 12 was identified in all five cellular fibromas as well as in two fibromas and the fibrothecoma. Gain of chromosome 9 was confined to the cellular fibromas. Loss of chromosomes 4 and/or 9 was prominent in the fibromas. These findings confirm the presence of trisomy 12 as a nonrandom chromosomal abnormality in ovarian stromal tumors. Moreover, these conventional and molecular cytogenetic data indicate that gain of chromosome 9 in addition to gain of chromosome 12 is prominent in cellular fibroma. In contrast, loss of chromosomes 4 and/or 9 are recurrent in fibroma. In summary, imbalances of chromosomes 4 and 9 appear to represent important secondary abnormalities in the thecoma-fibroma ovarian tumor group.