Objective: The relationship of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and smoking is well documented. However, it is unclear whether ADHD symptoms relate to nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood. We sought to assess the relationship of ADHD Hyperactivity-Impulsivity (H/I) and Inattention (I) symptoms with ND symptoms in a community sample from adolescence to young adulthood (ages 18-21).
Methods: Participants were adolescents (n = 672) smoking at least one whole cigarette in their lifetime. Participants are members of a prospective cohort study (ages 14-22) evaluating the bio-behavioral predictors of smoking. Data were analyzed with a two-piece latent growth curve model.
Results: ADHD-I symptoms were associated with ND symptoms acceleration in adolescence, but slowing acceleration in young adulthood, whereas ADHD-H/I symptoms were associated with ND symptoms acceleration in young adulthood.
Conclusions: The results suggest the relationship of ADHD and ND symptoms may differ by symptom type, and the developmental period assessed.