Many epidemiologic studies have disclosed that restricted fetal growth has been associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in adulthood. We studied the relationship of intracellular magnesium [Mg2+]i in cord blood platelets to adipocytokine and birth size. The subjects were 20 infants with small for gestational age (SGA) and 45 infants with appropriate for gestational age (AGA). By using a fluorescent probe, we examined [Mg2+]i of platelets in the cord blood. Cord plasma insulin, IGF-I, ghrelin, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and leptin levels were determined with the use of ELISA. Mean [Mg2+]i was lower in the SGA than in the AGA groups (p < 0.001). Adiponectin and IGF-I were also lower in the SGA than in the AGA, whereas PAI-1 was higher in the SGA. [Mg2+]i was significantly correlated with birth weight, birth length, and adiponectin. Birth weight was also correlated with cord plasma IGF-I, adiponectin, and leptin. Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was lower in the SGA group than in the AGA group. [Mg]i and adiponectin were correlated with QUICKI in all subjects. [Mg]i, as well as leptin and IGF-I, reflect the extent of fetal growth. Decreased [Mg2+]i may be involved in the underlying processes to insulin resistance.