Patients with corneal ulcer, residing mainly in rural areas of Paraguay, were controlled for mycotic eye infections. In 26 cases out of 45 (58%) presence of filamentous fungi was observed (Fusarium sp. (11), Aspergillus sp. (5), Cladosporium sp. (3), Alternaria sp. (2), Acremonium sp. (1), Curvularia sp. (1), culture negative (3)). In 17 cases also pathogenic bacteria were present. Most of the patients were farmers and belonged to the low income class. These data indicate that mycotic keratitis may be a frequent cause for eye infections in developing countries.