A comprehensive set of plasmids for vanillate- and xylose-inducible gene expression in Caulobacter crescentus

Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35(20):e137. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkm818. Epub 2007 Oct 24.


Caulobacter crescentus is widely used as a powerful model system for the study of prokaryotic cell biology and development. Analysis of this organism is complicated by a limited selection of tools for genetic manipulation and inducible gene expression. This study reports the identification and functional characterization of a vanillate-regulated promoter (P(van)) which meets all requirements for application as a multi-purpose expression system in Caulobacter, thus complementing the established xylose-inducible system (P(xyl)). Furthermore, we introduce a newly constructed set of integrating and replicating shuttle vectors that considerably facilitate cell biological and physiological studies in Caulobacter. Based on different narrow and broad-host range replicons, they offer a wide choice of promoters, resistance genes, and fusion partners for the construction of fluorescently or affinity-tagged proteins. Since many of these constructs are also suitable for use in other bacteria, this work provides a comprehensive collection of tools that will enrich many areas of microbiological research.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Caulobacter crescentus / genetics*
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Genetic Vectors*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Plasmids*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Vanillic Acid / metabolism*
  • Xylose / metabolism*


  • Xylose
  • Vanillic Acid