Construction of confidence limits about effect measures: a general approach

Stat Med. 2008 May 10;27(10):1693-702. doi: 10.1002/sim.3095.


It is widely accepted that confidence interval construction has important advantages over significance testing for the presentation of research results, as now facilitated by readily available software. However, for a number of effect measures, procedures are either not available or not satisfactory in samples of small to moderate size. In this paper, we describe a general approach for estimating a difference between effect measures, which can also be used to obtain confidence limits for a risk ratio and a lognormal mean. Numerical evaluation shows that this closed-form procedure outperforms existing methods, including the bootstrap.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Asthma / drug therapy
  • Computer Simulation
  • Confidence Intervals*
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical*
  • Humans
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Odds Ratio*
  • Research Design