While the prevalence of bronchiectasis has decreased significantly over recent decades in developed countries, resection for bronchiectasis still plays an important part in thoracic surgery practice in some countries, such as Portugal. Between 1994 and 2004, 51 patients (29 female and 22 male) with a mean age of 38.6 years (range 4-65 years) underwent pulmonary resection for bronchiectasis. Mean duration of symptoms was 4.8 years. Surgery was indicated because of unsuccessful medical therapy in 25 patients (49.1%), haemoptysis in 12 (23.5%), lung mass in 9 (17.6%) and lung abscess in 5 (9.8%). The surgical treatment was pulmonectomy in 7 patients, bilobectomy in 3, lobectomy in 36 and segmentectomy in 5. There was no operative mortality. Complications occurred in 8 patients and the morbidity rate was 15.7%. Follow-up was complete in 45 (88.2%) patients with a mean of 3.4 years. Overall, 35 (77.7%) patients were asymptomatic after surgery, symptoms were improved in 7 (15.6%), and unchanged or worse in 3 (6.7%). Unsuccessful medical therapy was still our main indication for surgery of bronchiectasis, despite aggressive anti- biotic therapy. Surgical resection was performed with acceptable morbidity and morbidity and markedly improved symptoms in the majority of patients.