Laboratory diagnosis of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

Transl Res. 2007 Nov;150(5):267-74. doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2007.08.001. Epub 2007 Sep 14.


The laboratory diagnosis of alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (AATD) has evolved over the last 40 years since the first cases of the disorder were reported. It is currently performed in specialized centers, and it requires a combination of different biochemical methods: nephelometric AAT concentration, isoelectric focusing, genotyping, and sequencing. The availability of matrices such as the dried blood spot have facilitated the implementation of laboratory analyses for AATD, but they have also challenged laboratories to develop more reliable and reproducible techniques starting from dried blood. In this article, we describe the protocols we have optimized for AATD diagnosis from dried blood spot, in an attempt to hopefully provide useful information for physicians and scientists involved in this diagnostic line. We also describe the diagnostic flowchart for AATD detection that we have developed accordingly.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Specimen Collection
  • Blood Stains
  • Genetic Testing / methods*
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Nephelometry and Turbidimetry
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin / blood
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin / genetics
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency / blood
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency / diagnosis*
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency / genetics


  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin