B lymphocyte-directed immunotherapy promotes long-term islet allograft survival in nonhuman primates

Nat Med. 2007 Nov;13(11):1295-8. doi: 10.1038/nm1673. Epub 2007 Oct 28.


We found that an induction immunotherapy regimen consisting of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (Thymoglobulin) and the monoclonal antibody to CD20 rituximab (Rituxan) promoted long-term islet allograft survival in cynomolgus macaques maintained on rapamycin monotherapy. B lymphocyte reconstitution after rituximab-mediated depletion was characterized by a preponderance of immature and transitional cells, whose persistence was associated with long-term islet allograft survival. Development of donor-specific alloantibodies was abrogated only in the setting of continued rapamycin monotherapy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use*
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived
  • Antilymphocyte Serum
  • B-Lymphocyte Subsets / cytology
  • B-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology*
  • B-Lymphocyte Subsets / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation / immunology
  • Graft Survival / immunology*
  • Immunotherapy, Active* / methods
  • Islets of Langerhans Transplantation / immunology*
  • Lymphocyte Depletion
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Rituximab
  • Transplantation, Homologous


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived
  • Antilymphocyte Serum
  • Rituximab
  • thymoglobulin