Recent research and increasing discussion in the medical literature have brought attention to public health concerns associated with mold exposure. Many kinds of mold and their mold-associated products have the potential to disrupt human molecular biochemistry and physiology, resulting in various types of acute and chronic affliction. As environmental health has not been a focus for medical education, some clinicians are not fully aware of the scope of mold-related health problems and are inadequately equipped to investigate and manage possible cases of mold exposure. As a result, manifestations of mold-related illness often remain misdiagnosed and ineffectually treated. It is important for physicians to be aware of the pathogenesis, the manifestations, the investigations and the management of possible mold exposure. An overview of mold-related health problems and two case histories are presented for consideration.