Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23 was identified as a humoral factor involved in the development of several hypophosphatemic diseases. Subsequent studies indicated that FGF23 is a hormone regulating serum phosphate level. However, it is still unknown how the production and serum level of FGF23 are regulated. This study was designed to determine whether acute changes of serum phosphate modulate FGF23 levels in human. Four healthy volunteers participated in the study. In the phosphate infusion study, dibasic potassium phosphate was infused at a rate of 10 mEq/h for 4 h, and serum FGF23 levels were measured for up to 6 h after the start of the infusion. In the carbohydrate study, partially hydrolyzed starch corresponding to 150 g glucose was ingested and FGF23 levels were measured similarly for 6 h. Phosphate infusion significantly increased and carbohydrate ingestion decreased serum phosphate levels, respectively. However, FGF23 did not change by these maneuvers. It is concluded that acute changes of serum phosphate do not modify FGF23 levels in the healthy human.