Objective: To address whether or not the rarity of amyloidosis in Greek patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is related to specific alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5'-flanking region and the exon 3 of the SSA1 gene.
Methods: The genotypes of the -13T/C SNP in the 5'-flanking region of the SAA1 gene and the two SNPs within exon 3 of SAA1 (2995C/T and 3010C/T polymorphisms) were determined in 88 Greek patients with RA, 14 patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and 110 healthy controls. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype frequencies involving -13T/C, 2995C/T and 3010C/T in these populations were tested and estimated, respectively.
Results: The genotypic distribution and allelic frequencies were similar in all groups tested. SNPs 2995 and 3010 were in linkage disequilibrium for all study populations (p < 0.05), whereas SNP -13 was not in linkage disequilibrium with either 2995 or 3010 (p > or = 0.05). Two major haplotypes presented in all patients with RA and FMF and controls: -13C; 2995T; 3010C (-13C; alpha) and -13C; 2995C; 3010T (-13C; beta). The -13T allele was linked with the gamma haplotype in Greek patients with RA and controls. The frequency of the -13T allele was found to be very rare in all groups tested.
Conclusions: In conclusion, the rarity of the putative amyloidogenic -13T allele in Greek populations may be related to low prevalence of AA amyloidosis development in Greek RA patients.