Attenuation of WNT signaling by DKK-1 and -2 regulates BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation and expression of OPG, RANKL and M-CSF

Mol Cancer. 2007 Oct 30;6:71. doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-6-71.

Abstract

Background: Enhanced osteoblast-dependent osteoclastogenesis due to inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-driven osteoprogenitors has been repeatedly implicated in the natural history of cancer-associated osteolytic lesions, but the mechanism of this bone loss is poorly understood.

Methods: We examined the impact of secreted Wnt inhibitors from the Dickkopf (Dkk) family on pluripotent mesenchymal cells undergoing BMP2-induced osteoblastic differentiation.

Results: We found that Dkk1 and -2 restored the Wnt3a-dependent reduction of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Osterix and p53, indicating that mitigated Wnt/beta-catenin signaling promotes certain aspects of early osteoblastogenesis through the BMP-p53-Osterix-ALP axis. Dkk1 and -2 increased the expression of the osteoclast differentiation factors, receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), upon stimulation with Wnt3a/1,25-dihydroxyvitamine D3 and Wnt3a/BMP2, respectively. The decoy receptor of RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), was down regulated under the latter conditions. These findings indicated that Dkk1 and -2 facilitate osteoclastogenesis by enhancing RANKL/RANK and M-CSF/c-Fms interactions. Dkk4 weakly shared activities of Dkk-1 and -2, whereas Dkk3 was ineffective.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that inhibited Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in BMP2-induced osteoprogenitors in vivo promotes, on balance, the heightened formation of osteoclasts. Focally increased Dkk1 production by tumor cells in the bone may thus lead to focal bone loss.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / biosynthesis*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C3H
  • Models, Biological
  • Neoplasm Transplantation
  • Osteoblasts / metabolism
  • Osteoprotegerin / biosynthesis*
  • Plasmacytoma / metabolism
  • RANK Ligand / biosynthesis*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis
  • Wnt Proteins / metabolism*

Substances

  • Bmp2 protein, mouse
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Dkk1 protein, mouse
  • Dkk2 protein, mouse
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Osteoprotegerin
  • RANK Ligand
  • Tnfsf11 protein, mouse
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor