MF59 is a safe and potent vaccine adjuvant for flu vaccines in humans: what did we learn during its development?

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Dec;82(6):740-4. doi: 10.1038/sj.clpt.6100402. Epub 2007 Oct 31.


The MF59 adjuvant has been included in a licensed influenza vaccine for a decade. Hence, we have a significant amount of clinical data to establish its potency and safety. We can now reassess our early preclinical studies and determine whether or not they were useful to predict human responses. The main lesson learned is that mouse models can be valuable, but one must ask the right questions and the models must be used appropriately.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / adverse effects
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Disease Outbreaks / prevention & control*
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines* / pharmacology
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Mice
  • Orthomyxoviridae / drug effects
  • Orthomyxoviridae / immunology
  • Polysorbates / adverse effects
  • Polysorbates / pharmacology*
  • Squalene / adverse effects
  • Squalene / pharmacology*


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • MF59 oil emulsion
  • Polysorbates
  • Squalene