Pharmacological immunomodulation of surgical trauma

J Invest Surg. Sep-Oct 2007;20(5):283-9. doi: 10.1080/08941930701598792.


Surgery and accidental trauma induce changes in the immune response, showing a predominant pattern of activation through the Th2 cell pathway to the detriment of Th1 cell pathway activation. Anapsos is a hydrosoluble extract obtained from Polypodium leucotomos. Anapsos has shown immunomodulating effects in vitro. On a rat experimental model (tibia and fibula fracture), cytokines (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12) (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) and cell percentages of CD4, CD8 CD25, CD122, and CD132 (monoclonal antibodies, MoAb) were determined in peripheral blood 7 days before surgery (PRE), 1 day after surgery (1PO), and 7 days after surgery (7PO). On postoperative day 1, rats undergoing fracture show an increase of CD8 percent expression and IL-6 and IL-10 levels, in contrast to rats undergoing fracture plus anapsos treatment. On postoperative day 7, rats undergoing fracture show an increase of IL-6 levels, whereas rats undergoing fracture plus anapsos do not. The IL-12 level decreases on postoperative day 7 in the group with fracture but not in the fracture plus anapsos group. Thus, we conclude that anapsos is able to modulate the immune response after trauma, inhibiting Th2 pathway activation with no effect on Th1 pathway activation. In trauma, Anapsos could prevent the shifting Th1/Th2 balance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Fibula / injuries*
  • Fibula / surgery
  • Glycosides / pharmacology*
  • Immunologic Factors / pharmacology*
  • Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-10 / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-2 Receptor beta Subunit / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-6 / biosynthesis
  • Male
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Surgical Procedures, Operative*
  • Tibial Fractures / immunology
  • Tibial Fractures / surgery*
  • Wounds and Injuries / immunology*


  • Glycosides
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit
  • Interleukin-2 Receptor beta Subunit
  • Interleukin-6
  • Interleukin-10
  • anapsos