[Orthodontics in general practice. 2. Treatment of eruption failures]

Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 2007 Oct;114(10):416-22.
[Article in Dutch]


Since the introduction of composites and bonding in orthodontics, the possibilities of aligning impacted teeth into the dental arch after a surgical intervention, have remarkably increased. There are 4 important treatment techniques. The closed-eruption technique includes bracket-bonding to and ligating of the exposed tooth, followed by repositioning of the mucosal flap. The disadvantage of the method is the uncontrollable orthodontic force on the non-visible tooth during orthodontic extrusion. The open-eruption technique aims at keeping the exposed tooth visible, followed by spontaneous eruption. However, the exposure appears often as a radical exposure with unfavourable gingival consequences. The open-eruption technique with apical positioned mucosal flap is designed to expose teeth highly buccally impacted. The mucosal graft may cause a typical thick, stretched and not aesthetically acceptable gum after orthodontic treatment, even in case of using a split-thickness graft. The modified window technique is an open-eruption technique with minimal exposure, resulting in immediate eruption. If orthodontic treatment is required, the tooth is no longer impacted. The success rates of the 4 techniques vary from 75 until 99%. Study of the literature reveals insufficient scientific evidence in favour of 1 treatment technique. However, independent of the surgical technique applied, general practitioners play a crucial role in diagnostics of eruption failures and timely referral to an orthodontist.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Orthodontic Appliances
  • Orthodontic Wires
  • Orthodontics, Interceptive / methods*
  • Surgical Flaps*
  • Tooth Eruption, Ectopic / surgery
  • Tooth Movement Techniques / instrumentation*
  • Tooth Movement Techniques / methods*
  • Tooth, Impacted / surgery*