Parathyroid hormone (PTH), via activation of PKC and/or protein kinase A, inhibits renal proximal tubular phosphate reabsorption by facilitating the internalization of the major sodium-dependent phosphate transporter, Npt2a. Herein, we explore the hypothesis that the effect of PTH is mediated by phosphorylation of serine 77 (S77) of the first PDZ domain of the Npt2a-binding protein sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1). Using recombinant polypeptides representing PDZ I, S77 of NHERF-1 is phosphorylated by PKC but not PKA. When expressed in primate kidney epithelial cells (BSC-1 cells), however, activation of either protein kinase phosphorylates S77, suggesting that the phosphorylation of PDZ I by PKC and PKA proceeds by different biochemical pathways. PTH and other activators of PKC and PKA dissociate NHERF-1/Npt2a complexes, as assayed using quantitative coimmunoprecipitation, confocal microscopy, and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation in mice. Murine NHERF-1-/- renal proximal tubule cells infected with adenovirus-GFP-NHERF-1 containing an S77A mutation showed significantly increased phosphate transport compared with a phosphomimetic S77D mutation and were resistant to the inhibitory effect of PTH compared with cells infected with wild-type NHERF-1. These results indicate that PTH-mediated inhibition of renal phosphate transport involves phosphorylation of S77 of the NHERF-1 PDZ I domain and the dissociation of NHERF-1/Npt2a complexes.