Efficacy of bovine herpesvirus-1 inactivated vaccine against abortion and stillbirth in pregnant heifers

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007 Nov 1;231(9):1386-9. doi: 10.2460/javma.231.9.1386.


Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of an inactivated bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) vaccine to protect against BHV-1 challenge-induced abortion and stillbirth.

Design: Prospective study.

Animals: 35 beef heifers.

Procedures: Before breeding, heifers were vaccinated with a commercially available BHV-1 inactivated vaccine SC or IM. The estrous cycle was then synchronized, and heifers were artificially inseminated 30 to 60 days after vaccination. Heifers (n = 21) were challenge inoculated IV at approximately 180 days of gestation with virulent BHV-1. Fourteen control heifers were not vaccinated. Clinical signs of BHV-1 infection were monitored for 10 days following challenge; serologic status and occurrence of abortion or stillbirth were evaluated until time of calving.

Results: 18 of 21 (85.7%) heifers that received vaccine were protected from abortion following challenge, whereas all 14 control heifers aborted.

Conclusions and clinical relevance: Results indicated that an inactivated BHV-1 vaccine can protect against abortion resulting from a substantial challenge infection, with efficacy similar to that of modified-live BHV-1 vaccines.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Veterinary / prevention & control*
  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Female
  • Fetal Death / prevention & control
  • Fetal Death / veterinary*
  • Herpesvirus 1, Bovine / immunology*
  • Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis / prevention & control*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / prevention & control
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / veterinary*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Vaccination / veterinary
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Vaccines, Inactivated
  • Viral Vaccines*


  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Vaccines, Inactivated
  • Viral Vaccines