The Euro Heart Survey on valvular heart disease included 5001 patients from 92 centers in 25 European countries in 2001: 71.9% had native valve disease and 28.1% had previously undergone valve surgery. Aortic stenosis (AS) and mitral regurgitation (MR) accounted for 43.1 and 33.6%, respectively, of single-valve diseases and were mostly caused by degenerative diseases. Mean age was 69 and 65 years, respectively, and at least one comorbidity was present in 36.3% of patients with AS and 41.7% with MR. Analysis of the therapeutic decision in patients with severe valve diseases showed that symptomatic patients were frequently denied surgery (32.3% in AS after the age of 75 and 51.3% in MR), more on the basis of age and left ventricular function than comorbidities. There was a better concordance between practice and guidelines concerning interventions in asymptomatic patients. These findings underline the need for better implementation of guidelines.