The changes occurring in specific mood states in response to alterations in physical training were assessed in college varsity swimmers. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered at regular intervals during training seasons over a four-year period to 84 female and 102 male swimmers. It was found that female and male swimmers displayed similar mood responses during training in total mood as well as the specific moods of depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, and confusion. Each of these mood states fluctuated correspondingly with alterations in training yardage, with the exception of tension, which remained elevated while training was being reduced. Tension also was higher (p less than 0.05) in the female swimmers in each of the seasons. It is concluded that: 1) changes in specific mood states during training are similar between female and male swimmers, with the exception of tension, and 2) specific mood factors increase and decrease in accordance with alterations in training distance, with the exception of tension, which does not decrease in response to reductions in training.