Dietary casein promotes a progressive decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of remnant kidneys associated with metabolic acidosis and an endothelin-mediated increase in renal acidification. We tested whether diets that affect the acid-base status contributes to the decline of GFR through endothelin receptors in rats with a remnant kidney. Rats on a casein diet had metabolic acidosis at baseline and developed a progressive decline in GFR after renal mass reduction. Dietary sodium bicarbonate but not sodium chloride ameliorated metabolic acidosis and prevented the decrease in GFR but only after the sodium bicarbonate-induced increase in blood pressure was treated. Dietary soy protein did not induce baseline metabolic acidosis and rats with remnant kidney on a soy diet had no decrease in their GFR. By contrast, rats with a remnant kidney on soy protein given dietary acid developed metabolic acidosis and a decreased GFR. This decline in GFR was prevented in either case by endothelin A but not endothelin A/B receptor antagonism. Our study suggests that the casein-induced decline in GFR of the remnant kidney is mediated by metabolic acidosis through endothelin A receptors.