'Yin-Yang' functions of transforming growth factor-beta and T regulatory cells in immune regulation

Immunol Rev. 2007 Dec;220:199-213. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2007.00565.x.


Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and forkhead box p3-expressing T-regulatory (Treg) cells are critical in maintaining self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. The immune suppressive functions of TGF-beta and Treg cells are widely acknowledged and extensively studied. Nonetheless, recent studies revealed the positive roles of TGF-beta and Treg cells in shaping the immune system and the inflammatory responses. This review discusses our and other's efforts in understanding the negative (Yin) as well as the positive (Yang) roles for TGF-beta and Treg cells in immune regulation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / physiology
  • Humans
  • Immunity*
  • Mice
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology*
  • Yin-Yang


  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta