Background: Acute procedurally induced hemodynamic depression can occur after carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). This study was performed to determine the frequency and risk factors for hypotension and bradycardia after the CAS procedure.
Methods: The study reviewed clinical variables and angiographic data of all patients undergoing elective CAS with neuroprotection during a recent 5-year period. Intravenous atropine was given selectively in cases of bradycardia (heart rate <60 beats/min or a decrease of >20 beats/min). We further defined hemodynamic depression as bradycardia or severe hypotension (systolic blood pressure fall >30 mm Hg). Frequency and potential risk factors for hemodynamic depression were analyzed by logistic regression.
Results: During the study period, 416 patients (99% male; mean age, 74 +/- 11 years) underwent the CAS procedure. The median degree of stenosis was 93% (range, 60% to 99%). The frequencies of post-CAS hemodynamic depression include hypotension in 58 (14%), bradycardia in 112 (27%), or both in 21 (5%). All patients with bradycardia received intraprocedural atropine, and all heart rates returned to the baseline level. Persistent hypotension occurred in 45 patients (11%). Increased age was associated with CAS-induced bradycardia or hypotension. Adjusted risk factors associated with hemodynamic depression include age >78 years (odds ratio [OR], 5.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.32 to 15.25; P = .01) and ejection fraction of <25% (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 0.58 to 6.58; P = .02). CEA-related restenosis was associated with a reduced risk of hemodynamic depression (OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.69, P = .001). Persistent hypotension after CAS was associated with an increased risk of an adverse clinical event (44%, P = .001).
Conclusions: Hemodynamic depression, including hypotension and bradycardia, is frequent after CAS. However, CAS-induced hemodynamic depression is rare in patients with postendarterectomy stenosis. Patients with compromised ejection fraction and increased age are at a higher risk of presenting with CAS-induced hemodynamic instability, and persistent hypotension after CAS is associated with an increased postprocedural complication rate.