Bicaudal-C (Bic-C) encodes an RNA-binding protein required maternally for patterning the Drosophila embryo. We identified a set of mRNAs that associate with Bic-C in ovarian ribonucleoprotein complexes. These mRNAs are enriched for mRNAs that function in oogenesis and in cytoskeletal regulation, and include Bic-C RNA itself. Bic-C binds specific segments of the Bic-C 5' untranslated region and negatively regulates its own expression by binding directly to NOT3/5, a component of the CCR4 core deadenylase complex, thereby promoting deadenylation. Bic-C overexpression induces premature cytoplasmic-streaming, a posterior-group phenotype, defects in Oskar and Kinesin heavy chain:betaGal localization as well as dorsal-appendage defects. These phenotypes are largely reciprocal to those of Bic-C mutants, and they affect cellular processes that Bic-C-associated mRNAs are known, or predicted, to regulate. We conclude that Bic-C regulates expression of specific germline mRNAs by controlling their poly(A)-tail length.