Osteoporosis is prevalent in transplant recipients and is related to pre- and post-transplantation factors. Low bone density and fractures may antedate transplantation, related to traditional risk factors for osteoporosis, effects of chronic illness, and end-stage organ failure and its therapy, on the skeleton. Bone loss after transplantation is related to adverse effects of immunosuppressive drugs (glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors) on bone remodeling. Newer immunosuppressive medications may permit lower doses of glucocorticoids and may be associated with decreased bone loss and fractures. Bisphosphonates are currently the most effective agents for the prevention and treatment of post-transplantation osteoporosis.