Background: Cardiac interventions are underutilized in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) partly due to nephrotoxicity concerns.
Methods: We analyzed outcomes of 4631 subjects with ACS enrolled in the Blockade of the Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor to Avoid Vascular Occlusion trial, including time to death, time to reduced renal function (50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD)) and percent change in eGFR from baseline.
Results: Subjects with a lower baseline eGFR were more likely to be older, female and have diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure or peripheral vascular disease (all P < 0.0001); they were less likely to be taking aspirin > or = 162 mg or to have undergone a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) prior to enrollment (P < 0.0001). As eGFR declined, the proportion of subjects experiencing death versus reduced eGFR or ESRD qualitatively increased. In adjusted analyses, every 10 ml/min/1.73 m(2) decrease in eGFR < or = 90 was associated with a 15% increased hazard of death (HR 1.15, P = 0.01). In adjusted analyses of predictors of percent change in eGFR, catheterization (cath) with or without PCI compared to medical therapy during follow-up was not associated with significant differences in long-term eGFR (P = 0.09).
Conclusions: Among CKD subjects in this study, the risk of death greatly outweighed the risk of reduced eGFR or development of ESRD following ACS and the occurrence of cath +/- PCI was not associated with significant differences in long-term renal function. The presence of CKD should not preclude potentially beneficial interventions and research should focus on reducing the high cardiovascular burden in this population.