The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily is one of the largest protein families with representatives in all kingdoms of life. Members of this superfamily are involved in a wide variety of transport processes with substrates ranging from small ions to relatively large polypeptides and polysaccharides. The G subfamily of ABC transporters consists of half-transporters, which oligomerise to form the functional transporter. While ABCG1, ABCG4 and ABCG5/8 are involved in the ATP-dependent translocation of steroids and, possibly, other lipids, ABCG2 (also termed the breast cancer resistance protein) has been identified as a multidrug transporter that confers resistance on tumor cells. Evidence will be summarized suggesting that ABCG2 can also mediate the binding/transport of non-drug substrates, including free and conjugated steroids. The characterization of the substrate specificities of ABCG proteins at a molecular level might provide further clues about their potential physiological role(s), and create new opportunities for the modulation of their activities in relation to human disease.