Increased oxidative stress and antioxidant deficit have been suggested to play a major role in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of alpha-mangostin on the antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Induction of rats with ISO (150 mg/kg body weight, ip) for 2 days resulted in a marked elevation in lipid peroxidation, serum marker enzymes (LDH, CPK, GOT, and GPT) and a significant decrease in the activities of endogenous antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GSH). Pre-treatment with alpha-mangostin (200 mg/kg of body weight per day) orally for 6 days prior to the ISO administration and 2 days along with ISO administration significantly attenuated these changes when compared to the individual treatment groups. These findings indicate the protective effect of alpha-mangostin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant tissue defense system during ISO-induced myocardial infarction in rats.