Influence of roasting conditions on the acrylamide content and the color of roasted almonds

J Food Sci. 2007 Jan;72(1):C033-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00206.x.


The influence of roasting conditions on the acrylamide content and on the color of roasted almonds of 3 cultivars was investigated. The temperature inside the almond kernel, the water content, the color, and the acrylamide content were determined at different roasting temperatures and times. The formation of acrylamide started only when the kernel temperature had exceeded approximately 130 degrees C. The activation energy for the acrylamide formation during the roasting of almonds was 123 kJ x mol(-1). The color as measured by the degree of brightness correlated well with the acrylamide content as acrylamide content increased with increasing darkness. Therefore, control of roasting temperature presents the critical factor for limiting the acrylamide concentration in the final product. At constant roasting conditions, almonds with higher initial moisture content contained less acrylamide after roasting, which is probably due to the influence of moisture on the development product temperature during roasting.

MeSH terms

  • Acrylamide / analysis*
  • Acrylamide / chemistry
  • Color
  • Food Handling / methods*
  • Food Preservation / methods*
  • Hot Temperature* / adverse effects
  • Prunus / chemistry*
  • Prunus / genetics
  • Seeds / chemistry*
  • Time Factors
  • Water / analysis


  • Water
  • Acrylamide