C-reactive protein (CRP) was increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to evaluate CRP after inducing AF in 39 patients undergoing electrophysiologic study (EPS). After a diagnostic EPS, programmed atrial stimulation with 3 extra stimuli from the right atrium was performed in all patients. CRP was measured before and 6 and 24 hours after the procedure. Patients in whom AF was induced were monitored for 24 hours. AF was induced in 18 of 39 patients. Twenty-one patients without a tachyarrhythmia constituted the control group. Groups were similar with regard to age, gender, incidences of hypertension and diabetes, and history of coronary artery disease. On average, AF lasted 4.8 hours, and spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm was observed in all patients. There were no statistically significant differences with respect to baseline and 6-hour CRP values between groups. However, mean CRP at 24 hours was significantly higher in patients with AF compared with controls (10 +/- 11 and 3.9 +/- 4.2 mg/L; p = 0.04). In conclusion, induction of AF during EPS led to increased CRP. This finding suggested that increased CRP may be the consequence of AF.