Greater resting energy expenditure and lower respiratory quotient after 1 week of supplementation with milk relative to supplementation with a sugar-only beverage in children

Metabolism. 2007 Dec;56(12):1699-707. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2007.07.014.


Previous studies have linked overweight to lower milk and calcium consumption and have proposed a role of milk consumption on energy expenditure (EE). The goal of this study was to compare EE and food intake after a meal of either mixed-nutrient or single-nutrient beverage and examine whether supplementation with that beverage for 1 week will impact EE. This was a randomized, controlled crossover study testing the effect of 2 beverages, milk or fruit-flavored beverage, before and after a supplementation period of 1 week on EE. Food intake at a meal after a snack intake of each beverage was assessed at the end of each measurement period. Ten children, aged 9 to 10 years, participated in all of the testing sessions in the study. There was a significant beverage by testing day interaction on daily EE and thermic effect of food (TEF), whereby EE was greater with milk consumption relative to the fruit-flavored beverage on day 8 (P = .0014) and with fruit-flavored beverage consumption on day 1 vs day 8 (P = .01). Similarly, the TEF was greater with milk compared with fruit-flavored beverage consumption on day 8 (P = .0007) and with fruit-flavored beverage consumption on day 1 relative to day 8 (P = .0097). The TEF declined more rapidly during 6 hours after a fruit-flavored beverage than a milk meal (P = .0018). Food intake did not differ after snack consumption of each beverage before and after milk and fruit-flavored beverage supplementation periods. Over the longer term, consumption of milk beverages may have more favorable effects on energy balance in children than consumption of fruit-flavored beverages.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Beverages*
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Calorimetry, Indirect
  • Child
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Eating / physiology
  • Energy Metabolism / physiology*
  • Feeding Behavior / physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Milk*
  • Respiratory Physiological Phenomena
  • Thermogenesis / physiology


  • Calcium