The white dot syndromes

Compr Ophthalmol Update. 2007 Jul-Aug;8(4):179-200; discussion 203-4.


The white dot syndromes are a heterogeneous group of rare inflammatory disorders affecting the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium, and the choroid. Not all of these diseases actually cause white dots, but they all have unique lesions in the fundus. We describe acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy, serpiginous choroiditis, birdshot chorioretinopathy, multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis, diffuse subretinal fibrosis syndrome, punctate inner choroidopathy, multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, and diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis as the white dot syndromes in this review. Some of these conditions share an association with systemic infectious diseases. In addition, treatment of these diseases is similar. Some can be treated with immunosuppressive therapy. Other treatment options include laser photocoagulation, topical or systemic steroid therapy, photodynamic therapy, and, most recently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents. The new development in treatment may alter the visual prognosis of the patients, leading to a better outcome in visual acuity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Choroid Diseases* / complications
  • Choroid Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Choroid Diseases* / therapy
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Fundus Oculi
  • Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Laser Coagulation / methods
  • Photochemotherapy / methods
  • Prognosis
  • Retinal Diseases* / complications
  • Retinal Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Retinal Diseases* / therapy
  • Syndrome


  • Glucocorticoids