Biomonitoring of estrogen and melatonin metabolites among women residing near radio and television broadcasting transmitters

J Occup Environ Med. 2007 Oct;49(10):1149-56. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181566b87.


Objectives: Metabolites of estrogen (estrone-3-glucuronide [E1G]) and melatonin (6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate [6-OHMS]) were characterized among women living in a community with increased radiofrequency (RF) exposure from radio and television transmitters.

Methods: RF spot measurements, and personal 60-Hz magnetic field and residential parameters were collected. Overnight urine samples were assayed for E1G and 6-OHMS excretion.

Results: Among premenopausal women, there were no associations between RF or 60-Hz nonionizing radiation and E1G or 6-OHMS excretion. Among postmenopausal women, increased residential RF exposures, transmitter proximity and visibility, and temporally stable 60-Hz exposures were significantly associated with increased E1G excretion. This association was strongest among postmenopausal women with low overnight 6-OHMS levels.

Conclusions: RF and temporally stable 60-Hz exposures were associated with increased E1G excretion among postmenopausal women. Women with reduced nocturnal 6-OHMS excretion may represent a sensitive subgroup.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers
  • Child
  • Electric Wiring
  • Electromagnetic Fields / adverse effects*
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Estrogens / analysis
  • Estrogens / metabolism
  • Estrogens / radiation effects*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Melatonin / analysis
  • Melatonin / metabolism
  • Melatonin / radiation effects*
  • Middle Aged
  • Radiation, Nonionizing / adverse effects


  • Biomarkers
  • Estrogens
  • Melatonin