A decade has passed since SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) was discovered to be a reversible post-translational protein modifier. During this time many enzymes that participate in regulated SUMO-conjugation and -deconjugation pathways have been identified and characterized. In parallel, the search for SUMO substrates has produced a long list of targets, which appear to be involved in most cellular functions. Sumoylation is a highly dynamic process and its outcomes are extremely diverse, ranging from changes in localization to altered activity and, in some cases, stability of the modified protein. At first glance, these effects have nothing in common; however, it seems that they all result from changes in the molecular interactions of the sumoylated proteins.