Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) frequently involves the subglottis and trachea and may compromise the upper airway. The objective of this study is to evaluate retrospectively the effect of treatment of subglottic stenosis (SGS) and tracheal stenosis (TS) by dilatation tracheoscopy (DT) in patients with WG. We performed a cohort study on all patients who underwent DT between February 2001 and September 2005 in our institution. From this cohort we identified a total of nine WG patients. In all patients, clinical, serological and histopathological data had been prospectively collected by a standardized protocol from the time point of diagnosis. In the nine patients that were identified with SGS or TS due to WG (eight women and one man), a total of 22 DT's were performed. Two patients needed a tracheostoma (one temporarily). The mean follow-up after the first DT was 25.4 +/- 14.1 months. Two patients did not experience a recurrence of SGS or TS. Six patients required a second DT without recurrence of local disease. The remaining patient underwent 8 DT's in a 4-year period. DT can offer a simple and repeatable solution to SGS and TS due to WG. Seven of the nine patients required more than one dilatation and some patients experience a functional restriction. One patient has a definitive tracheostoma.