The evaluation and treatment of groin pain in athletes is challenging. The anatomy is complex, multiple pathologies often coexist, different pathologies may cause similar symptoms, and many systems can refer pain to the groin. Many athletes with groin pain have had symptoms significantly limit their activity, have tried prolonged rest and various treatment regimens, and received differing opinions as to the cause of their pain. Often times the diagnosis given depends on the physician's specialty. This article focuses on the groin structures and looks at three specific entities-"sports hernia," pubic bone edema, and entrapment neuropathies-as potential causes of chronic groin pain. Potential diagnostic and treatment strategies are also discussed.