Genetic and QTL analysis of resistance to Xiphinema index in a grapevine cross

Theor Appl Genet. 2008 Jan;116(2):305-11. doi: 10.1007/s00122-007-0670-6. Epub 2007 Nov 15.


Resistance to the dagger nematode Xiphinema index has been an important objective in grape rootstock breeding programs. This nematode not only causes severe feeding damage to the root system, but it also vectors grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), the causal agent of fanleaf degeneration and one of the most severe viral diseases of grape. The established screening procedures for dagger nematode resistance are time consuming and can produce inconsistent results. A fast and reliable greenhouse-based system for screening resistance to X. index that is suitable for genetic studies and capable of evaluating breeding populations is needed. In this report, the dynamics of nematode numbers, gall formation, and root weight loss were investigated using a variety of soil mixes and pot sizes over a 52-week period. Results indicated that the number of galls formed was correlated with the size of the nematode population and with the degree of root weight loss. After inoculation with 100 nematodes, gall formation could be reliably evaluated in 4-8 weeks in most plant growth conditions and results were obtained 6 months more rapidly than past evaluation methods. This modified X. index resistance screening method was successfully applied to 185 of the 188 F(1) progeny from a cross of D8909-15 x F8909-17 (the 9621 population), which segregates for a form of X. index resistance originally derived from Vitis arizonica. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was carried out on both parental genetic maps of 255 markers using MapQTL 4.0. Results revealed that X. index resistance is controlled by a major QTL, designated Xiphinema index Resistance 1 (XiR1), near marker VMC5a10 on chromosome 19. The XiR1 QTL was supported by a LOD score of 36.9 and explained 59.9% of the resistance variance in the mapping population.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenophorea*
  • Animals
  • Breeding / methods*
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Crosses, Genetic
  • DNA Primers / genetics
  • Immunity, Innate / genetics*
  • Lod Score
  • Plant Diseases / parasitology*
  • Plant Roots / parasitology
  • Quantitative Trait Loci*
  • Vitis / genetics*
  • Vitis / parasitology


  • DNA Primers