Diagnosis and management of dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas

Neurosurg Focus. 2007;23(5):E13. doi: 10.3171/FOC-07/11/E13.


A carotid-cavernous sinus fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. Some fistulas are characterized by a direct connection between the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the cavernous sinus, whereas others consist of a communication between the cavernous sinus and one or more meningeal branches of the ICA, external carotid artery, or both. These dural fistulas usually have low rates of arterial blood flow and until recently were difficult to diagnose and treat. In this paper, the author discusses the anatomy, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of dural CCFs.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blepharitis / diagnosis
  • Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula / complications
  • Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula / diagnosis*
  • Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula / therapy*
  • Conjunctivitis / diagnosis
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / diagnosis
  • Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology
  • Prognosis
  • Retinal Diseases / diagnosis
  • Retinal Diseases / etiology
  • Vision Disorders / etiology