In vitro data suggest protective roles for vitamins K and D in inflammation. To examine associations between vitamins K and D and inflammation in vivo, the authors used multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, triglyceride concentrations, use of aspirin, use of lipid-lowering medication, season, menopausal status, and hormone replacement therapy. Participants were from the Framingham Offspring Study (1997-2001; n = 1,381; mean age = 59 years; 52% women). Vitamin K status, measured by plasma phylloquinone concentration and phylloquinone intake, was inversely associated with circulating inflammatory markers as a group and with several individual inflammatory biomarkers (p < 0.01). Percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin, a functional measure of vitamin K status, was not associated with overall inflammation but was associated with C-reactive protein (p < 0.01). Although plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D was inversely associated with urinary isoprostane concentration, an indicator of oxidative stress (p < 0.01), overall associations between vitamin D status and inflammation were inconsistent. The observation that high vitamin K status was associated with lower concentrations of inflammatory markers suggests that a possible protective role for vitamin K in inflammation merits further investigation.