Objectives: Nocturnal positive pressure ventilation (PPV) has been shown to be effective in patients with impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR). We investigated the effect of a bi-level PPV and adaptive servo ventilation on LVEF, CSR, and quantitative sleep quality.
Methods: Thirty-seven patients (New York heart association [NYHA] II-III) with LVEF<45% and CSR were investigated by electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography and polysomnography. The CSR index (CSRI) was 32.3+/-16.2/h. Patients were randomly treated with bi-level PPV using the standard spontaneous/timed (S/T) mode or with adaptive servo ventilation mode (AutoSetCS). After 6 weeks, 30 patients underwent control investigations with ECG, echocardiography, and polysomnography.
Results: The CSRI decreased significantly to 13.6+/-13.4/h. LVEF increased significantly after 6 weeks of ventilation (from 25.1+/-8.5 to 28.8+/-9.8%, p<0.01). The number of respiratory-related arousals decreased significantly. Other quantitative sleep parameters did not change. The Epworth sleepiness score improved slightly. Daytime blood pressure and heart rate did not change. There were some differences between bi-level PPV and adaptive servo ventilation: the CSRI decreased more in the AutoSetCS group while the LVEF increased more in the bi-level PPV group.
Conclusions: Administration of PPV can successfully attenuate CSA. Reduced CSA may be associated with improved LVEF; however, this may depend on the mode of PPV. Changed LVEF is evident even in the absence of significant changes in blood pressure.