Acute cigarette smoking enhances adrenergic activity and thus may be associated with hemodynamic changes in the cardiovascular system. In this study, the acute effect of cigarette smoking on heart rate variability (HRV) was studied. Fifteen subjects were included in the study. Time domain (the mean R-R interval, the standard deviation of R-R interval, and the root mean square of successive R-R interval differences) and frequency domain (high-frequency, low-frequency ratio, and low-frequency/high-frequency ratio) parameters of HRV were obtained from all participants for each 5-minute segment: 5 minutes before and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after smoking a cigarette. The mean R-R interval, the standard deviation of R-R interval, and the root mean square of successive R-R interval differences significantly decreased within the first 5-minute period compared with baseline, and then the standard deviation of R-R interval increased within the 20- to 30-minute period. The low-frequency high-frequency ratio significantly decreased within the first 5 minutes after smoking and then remained unchanged throughout the study period. Similarly, low-frequency and high-frequency power increased within the first 5 minutes compared with baseline. Acute cigarette smoking alters HRV parameters, particularly within the first 5 to 10 minutes after smoking.