A kinship is described in which there was slowly progressive wasting and weakness of the muscles of the upper and occasionally of the lower limbs. Some members had hyperreflexia. There were no sensory abnormalities. Electrophysiological study suggested the presence of motor peripheral polyneuropathy. The condition appeared to be inherited as an autosomal dominant. The disorder does not appear typical of any of the known hereditary polyneuropathies and it is possible that it may represent a unique hereditary, dominantly motor, polyneuropathy. The significance of the hyperreflexia is uncertain, but raises the possibility of minor central involvement as well as peripheral neuropathy.