Purpose: Sorafenib (Nexavar) is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor that inhibits Raf serine/threonine kinases and receptor tyrosine kinases involved in tumor growth and angiogenesis. Sorafenib has demonstrated preclinical and clinical activity against several tumor types, as a monotherapy and in combination with other anti-cancer agents.
Methods: This review summarizes the safety, pharmacokinetics, and anti-tumor activity of sorafenib combined with other targeted agents or cytotoxics from a series of Phase I/II trials in approximately 600 patients with advanced solid tumors.
Results: Sorafenib in combination with other agents was generally well tolerated, and most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity. Frequent drug-related toxicities were dermatologic, gastrointestinal, or constitutional. Most trials supported sorafenib 400 mg bid as the recommended dose for combination. Sorafenib generally had little effect on the pharmacokinetics of coadministered agents and vice versa. Preliminary anti-tumor activity was observed; overall disease control rates (partial response plus stable disease) ranged from 33 to 92%. Particularly promising activity was observed in patients with melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and non-small-cell lung cancer receiving sorafenib plus paclitaxel/carboplatin, doxorubicin, and gefitinib, respectively.
Conclusions: Sorafenib demonstrated a good safety profile and encouraging anti-tumor effects when coadministered with other agents in patients with advanced solid tumors.