Aims: Mild blood glucose abnormalities during pregnancy may be linked to later glucose tolerance abnormalities or diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 6.75 years after delivery in women with differential blood glucose status during pregnancy.
Methods: We compared long-term outcomes among control women (n = 221), women with abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy (AGT; n = 322) and women with gestational diabetes (GDM; n = 466) who participated in DIAGEST 1. Women were recruited from 15 public maternity units in France. Clinical parameters could be determined in 155 control, 220 AGT and 338 GDM subjects. Rates of DM, IGT, IFG and 'Any Abnormality' were compared between the groups (American Diabetes Association criteria).
Results: Adherence to follow-up was 70.7%. Rates of DM, IGT and IFG were respectively 0.9% DM, 2.1% IGT and 3.6% IFG in the control group; rates in the AGT group were 6.3%, 11.3% and 6.3%. In GDM women, the rates of DM, IGT and IFG were, respectively, 18.0%, 13.4% and 8.5%. Predictors for DM were previous GDM, medical history of hypertension, age at delivery > or = 33 years, family history of diabetes, fasting glucose during pregnancy > or = 5.5 mmol/l and the severity of hyperglycaemia during pregnancy defined by the number of abnormal blood glucose values fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h during the glucose tolerance test at diagnosis of GDM.
Conclusion: This study has identified a high prevalence of glucose tolerance abnormalities after AGT during pregnancy. Compared with GDM women, women with AGT have an intermediate risk of later diabetes.