Anti-inflammatory activity of mangostins from Garcinia mangostana

Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Feb;46(2):688-93. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.096. Epub 2007 Sep 26.


The fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana Linn (Guttiferae) is used as an anti-inflammatory drug in Southeast Asia. Two xanthones, alpha- and gamma-mangostins, were isolated from the fruit hull of G. mangostana, and both significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and PGE(2) production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The IC(50) values for the inhibition of NO production by alpha- and gamma-mangostins were 12.4 and 10.1 microM, respectively. After iNOS enzyme activity was stimulated by LPS for 12 h, treatment with either alpha- or gamma-mangostin at 5 microg/ml (12.2 and 12.6 microM, respectively) for 24 h did not significantly inhibit NO production. The data show that the inhibitory activities of alpha- and gamma-mangostins are not due to direct inhibition of iNOS enzyme activity. On the other hand, expression of iNOS was inhibited by alpha- and gamma-mangostins in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, but not by COX-2. However, the level of PGE(2) production was reduced by the two xanthones. In an in vivo study, alpha-mangostin significantly inhibited mice carrageenan-induced paw edema. In conclusion, alpha- and gamma-mangostins from G. mangostana are bioactive substances with anti-inflammatory effects.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Dinoprostone / biosynthesis
  • Fruit
  • Garcinia mangostana*
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Macrophages / drug effects*
  • Macrophages / enzymology
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / drug effects*
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Pain / chemically induced
  • Pain / drug therapy
  • Xanthones / chemistry
  • Xanthones / pharmacology*
  • Xanthones / therapeutic use


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Xanthones
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Dinoprostone
  • mangostin