Nod (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain) 1 and Nod2 are intracellular PRMs (pattern-recognition molecules) of the NLR (Nod-like receptor) family. These proteins are implicated in the detection of bacterial peptidoglycan and regulate pro-inflammatory pathways in response to bacteria by inducing signalling pathways such as NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) and MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases). The Nod proteins act independently of the TLR (Toll-like receptor) cascade, but potently synergize with the latter to trigger innate immune responses to microbes. Most importantly, mutations in Nod2 have been shown to confer susceptibility to several chronic inflammatory disorders, including Crohn's disease, Blau syndrome and early-onset sarcoidosis, underscoring the role of Nod2 in inflammatory homoeostasis. This review summarizes the most recent findings in the field of Nod1 and Nod2 research.